Protect your Assets: Prenuptial Agreements 101

prenuptial

What is a prenuptial agreement?

A prenuptial or premarital agreement is a negotiated agreement reached between two parties in advance of marriage. The agreement typically deals with the ownership of assets in the event the marriage ends in divorce. Some prenuptial agreements will also cover alimony and child support. There is a great overview from a legal perspective here.

Do I really need a premarital agreement?

About half of marriages end in divorce in the United States so it may be prudent to consider signing one. Following are some considerations to help guide your decision making.

Timing is everything

Many newly engaged couples believe the entire concept of prenuptial agreements is unromantic or even disgusting because the party proposing the agreement may be planning for the marriage to fail. If you plan on asking for a prenuptial agreement in your future marriage we suggest you start the conversation early so expectations are not shattered weeks in advance of the big day.

Many jurisdictions even require a party be given a certain amount of time to review and negotiate the terms of a prenuptial before the marriage date. If the adequate time is not provided the agreement can be rendered unenforceable. In California the party receiving the prenuptial agreement must be given at least seven days to review the agreement before it is signed. If someone is not given the seven days, a court may consider it to be signed under duress and refuse to enforce it’s provisions.

Protect yourself.

Prenuptial agreements should be negotiated with the assistance of licensed and independent legal counsel. Independent is a key word. We have seen many prenuptial agreements drafted for couples by one attorney. Usually the drafting attorney is working for the person with the money. So how could the other party hope to get fair and complete representation from this lawyer if they are already working for their soon to be spouse? Unfortunately they usually do not.

In the State of California the party receiving the prenuptial agreement must be represented by independent legal counsel at the time of signing the agreement or waive their right to do so in writing. If independent counsel is not present the agreement may be rendered unenforceable.

This facet works to the advantage of both parties. For the party receiving the prenuptial agreement they will have access to competent and experienced legal counsel to ensure they understand what they are signing. For the person offering the prenuptial it provides additional assurance the agreement will stand up in court if the day should come. Bottom line don’t use your fiance’s attorney.

Protect your future.

Prenuptial agreements are all about money. One or both parties have it or the expectation of having it and want the money protected in the event of divorce. They are not only for celebrities or the super rich. Say you started a business before you were married and the business is just starting to gain traction. If the business grows to a value of millions of dollars during your marriage, the value may be considered part of your marital estate and you will have to pay your spouse to keep it in a divorce.

You may wish to have the business carved out as your separate property through the use of a prenuptial agreement. If the business does not take off as expected you would still have the peace of mind to know it is yours. If it does take off, you and your new spouse probably enjoyed the fruits of this success during your marriage through the income it was able to pay you.

Be prepared.

Prenuptial agreements require diligence and full disclosure. One of the many problems we see with prenuptial agreements is a complete lack or poor effort at disclosure of financial information. A good prenuptial agreement will include exhibits attached showing the assets, debts, income and expenses of both parties. You may not be able to prove assets not disclosed in the financials of the prenuptial agreement are governed by the provisions.

Take for example a brokerage account. You sign a prenuptial agreement saying all assets owned at the time of marriage are considered the separate property of the owner. What if the brokerage account was with Lehman Brothers who subsequently goes bankrupt and their records are no longer available. Your account balance will not have disappeared with the bankruptcy but your ability to prove it existed at the time of your marriage may have. If you cannot prove it existed at the time of marriage you may not get it awarded as your separate property in divorce. Start with full disclosure, be diligent about keeping records and consider updating or amending your prenuptial agreement as circumstances change and assets move around.

 

Stay tuned for more on the topic as we dive into Best Practices, explain Common Provisions, uncover Postnuptial and cohabitation agreements, share some horror stories of Prenuptial Failures and maybe even convince you Prenups are Romantic.

QDRO Process Explained: Click here to find out how to get started.

QDRO

What do I need to know about a QRDO?

The QDRO process can take months to complete making it very important the process is started as soon as possible. Following is a timeline of the process you should expect when filing a Qualified Domestic Relations Order.

Let’s get started.

  1. An attorney experienced in drafting Domestic Relations Orders is identified and engaged by the parties.
  2. The QDRO Specialist drafts the Domestic Relations Order in accordance with specific plan provisions and the agreements reached by parties to the proceedings.
  3. The parties, together with their respective attorneys and financial experts review and approve the draft document.
  4. The Draft Qualified Domestic Relations Order is submitted to the Plan Administrator for pre-approval.
  5. The Plan Administrator responds to the drafter with any necessary revisions.
  6. Requested revisions are made to the QDRO and the revised copy is sent to parties and attorneys for review and signature.
  7. The approved QDRO is signed by both parties and sent to the court for the judge’s signature.
  8. A copy of the singed and court certified Qualified Domestic Relations Order is sent to attorneys or parties.
  9. The certified singed copy of the QDRO must be sent to the Plan Administrator for processing. Some QDRO experts will send the approved document to the plan administrator for the clients. Make sure you know who will take on the responsibility and do not make assumptions.
  10. The Plan Administrator will send a letter to the participant and alternate payee with instructions on how to access the plan and a timeline for completion of the division. It may be necessary for the Alternate Payee to stipulate an outside account for benefits to be rolled to.
  11. The Plan Administrator calculates the division of the plan pursuant to the QDRO and creates a separate account for the Alternate Payee.
  12. The Alternate Payee will receive confirmation that their benefits have been partitioned into a separate account or rolled over into the account previously stipulated.

 

For more information about the Qualified Domestic Relations Order and how it can affect you, visit our article Retirement Accounts & Divorce: Why you need a QDRO.

 

At Wellspring Divorce Advisors, we use state of the art divorce financial planning and forecasting tools for long term projections, retirement plan valuation, support scenario comparisons, and negotiation tools including child support and alimony guidelines. Click here to find out how we can help you.

What is a Qualified Domestic Relations Order?

Retirement plans such as 401(k)’s and defined benefit pension plans are often among the largest assets to be divided during the division of a martial estate. Many of these plans are governed by a set of federal laws known as the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 or ERISA. ERISA allows an Alternate Payee such as a former spouse to receive a portion of the employee’s benefits with a court order. A Qualified Domestic Relations Order (QDRO) is the court order required to give notice to a retirement plan administrator that an Alternate Payee is entitled to a portion of the plan. Without a QDRO the plan administrator cannot legally make payments to the Alternate Payee.

Who Should Draft My QDRO?

A Qualified Domestic Relations Order should be drafted by an attorney familiar with this subset of legal practice. The drafting of a Qualified Domestic Relations Order is an important step in the divorce financial planning process. Financial planners have specific and far reaching knowledge of retirement plans and the underlying laws that govern them but are ill-equipped for drafting the actual Domestic Relations Orders as they are usually not attorneys.

For a QDRO to be valid and accepted by both the court and the plan administrator it must contain specific requirements under the law as well as be tailored to that specific plan. Retirement plans may even reject court certified orders that were not pre-approved by their own staff. For this reason it is necessary for a draft to be sent to the plan administrator for pre-approval prior to seeking court certification.

Wellspring Divorce Advisors suggests the qualified domestic relations order be drafted and pre-approved prior to finalizing the global financial agreements. We have seen many individuals still fighting to get their share of the retirement plans awarded to them years after settlement because the other party refuses to sign. See more on the QDRO Process here.

Breadwinner Moms: The rise in women paying spousal support

Breadwinner Moms

Do women pay spousal support?

Absolutely! Women pay spousal support and it is becoming more prevalent as women continue to make advancements in career and compensation (sometimes known as Breadwinner Moms).

Most compensation studies in the United States point to gender gaps in compensation between men and but women are still working more and making more money than ever. Women now make up 47% of the workforce and employment rates for married mothers are up from 37% in 1968 to 65% in 2011. Our modern economy has created more dual income families than ever and the number of women acting as the main bread winner in their household has increased dramatically.

Breadwinner Moms

29pew-web1-popupA Pew Research Center study from 2013 titled “Breadwinner Moms” found 40% of all households with children under 18 years old boast mothers as either the sole or primary breadwinner in the household. Compare this 40% to only 11% in 1960. The study was based on analysis of US Census data. It is important to recognize one major factor in these figures. 67% of those Breadwinner Moms are single mothers. Only 37% of them are married. This factor is important because the single mother cohort has a median income of only $23,000 versus the married cohort with a median income of $80,000. The married Breadwinner Moms are making more money than their husbands and more money than the national median which makes them very likely to be in a position of the spousal support payer if they were to divorce. This means there are 5.1 million women in the United States who will likely end up paying spousal support (alimony) to their former husbands in the event of divorce. Thanks to these encouraging demographic trends more women pay spousal support than ever.

What about gender preference?

If the husband can demonstrate a reasonable need for spousal support and his ex-wife has the ability to pay, then he is a good candidate for spousal support. The law has no room for preferential treatment of one gender in divorces so there should be no consideration of the support recipient’s gender in setting spousal support.

Having said that we have some observations to share from our experience working with Breadwinner Moms and their spouses:

 

  1. Women are likely to fight harder than their male counterparts to avoid paying their former spouse long term alimony.
  2. Men are more likely to refuse spousal support because they may feel it is emasculating.
  3. Women often expect their former husband to “take care of himself” after divorce.
  4. Some Men still believe it is bad for their wives to out-earn them during marriage and this may even be a central theme as to why the marriage ended. This feeling is quickly disappearing and i am sure would quickly disappear if the men knew households with the woman as the main bread winner earned higher average income compared to those households with men as the main breadwinner.

 

Bottom line, there are still many traditional gender roles at play.

 

Wellspring Divorce Advisors offers the creative options, financial analysis and strategies necessary to ensure you obtain the most financially advantageous settlement possible. Click here to find out how we can help you!

Hidden Assets in Divorce Panama Papers

Clients of Wellspring Divorce Advisors regularly express concerns about hidden assets in divorce proceedings. Often trust has been lost thanks to an affair and it is easy to take the next step and believe one lie makes it likely there are others. In most cases a Certified Divorce Financial Analyst at Wellspring can either confirm or deny these client fears through forensic review of financial records but the realizations found in the Panama Papers have proven it may be possible to hide assets. At least for a while.

The Panama Papers, published the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists or ICIJ, reveal

  • Offshore companies used ‘in a game of hide and concealment’ after marriages break down
  • Documents list luxury cars and yachts, lavish homes, and art collections
  • Spouses face a costly battle to prove ownership of offshore assets in protracted divorce proceedings

The ICIJ published a story “How the One Percenters Divorce:Offshore Intrigue Plays Hide and Seek with Millions” in early April of 2016. Most of the names revealed in the papers are international but the South American location of the law form involved does not render American citizens immune to the frauds perpetrated.

Concerns for hidden assets in divorce are common and widespread. If you share these concerns you must ask yourself; How much is the peace of mind worth? The peace of mind to know your spouse did not defraud you in the divorce proceedings. The peace of mind to know you got what you were owed in the financial settlement. There are ways to uncover hidden assets in divorce if you have the time and money to pursue it. We suggest you work with your Wellspring Divorce advisor and your attorney to look at the cost versus benefit of doing so and make your decision on how to proceed with the professional advice in mind.